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家装公司店面频调整 与家居卖场“蜜月”不再

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 租客搬离“首租房”后当即体检 成都30多名自如租客集体检测房屋甲醛 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

政策护航 玻璃基板国产化突围之路不平坦

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

中国人民大学近日发布的我国大学生创业报告显示,学生学位与其创业意愿成反比。
11月中国房地产价格继续下跌,因投资者把更多注意力从房地产市场转向股市。
cap容纳+acity表名词,“有…倾向”→容量;能力
在上周二晚上放学后,孙轶潇乘坐电梯回家,可是电梯突然故障停止运行。
On questions 10 and 11, if you circled 0, enter 4; if 1, enter 3; if 2, enter 2; if 3, enter 1; if 4, enter 0.
The Shanghai Stock Exchange saw 26 IPOs, while its Shenzhen counterpart saw 15 IPOs of small-and-medium-sized enterprises and 20 start-up companies.
Be Professional

That brought the balance of trade to $49.06bn, down about $4.3bn from November and coming in about $2.3bn lower than forecast.
The regulations also specifically stipulate the taxi services.
以下是我们精选的本届科隆游戏展最值得关注的新游戏。
Losers: Knicks
The EU’s Americas gambits

Footnotes

  • 房企转型“成绩单”:几家欢喜几家愁
  • 那些服装能引起共鸣,是因为身穿那些服装的剧中人物精致复杂,而不只是因为琼的织锦紧身连衣裙真的魅力四射,或者梅根的迷幻雪纺连衣裙让璞琪看起来很酷。

In 2016, 1,576 foreigners became permanent Chinese residents, an increase of 163% on the previous year, according the Ministry of Public Security.
Nevertheless, as New Yorkers grow accustomed to a sharing economy, buildings might ultimately have to embrace it.
v. 构成,把 ...
我们就是要打造开放的高地、投资的热土,和世界共享发展机遇。
近几个月,为了遏制资本外流、缓解人民币贬值压力,中国监管机构针对海外并购出台了一系列新限制措施。2016年,中国企业对外非金融类直接投资额激增44%,达到创纪录的1700亿美元。
"Look What You Made Me Do" is one for the history books, and pop scholars will likely debate for generations whether it was a brilliant P.R. coup or not.

国务院办公厅:对棚户区及危房改造工作积极主动并有的地方实施激励措施

References

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