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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

抓好金融体制改革。

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总之,勒布朗在过去的9年里能很好地强化他那野兽般的身躯,我们感到很欣慰。
We will perform with a strong work ethic, sense of responsibility, and enterprising spirit.
No matter what the inherent method of momentum, all of these engines leverage the latest engine technology to maximize both their power and fuel economy, and run the gamut from the tiny and efficient 1.0-liter turbocharged three-cylinder unit offered in the Ford Fiesta to the Chevrolet Corvette Stingray’s mammoth 6.2-liter V8 that proves there’s no substitute for sheer displacement. We’re featuring Wards’ 10 Best Engines in the accompanying slideshow.

《敦刻尔克》是克里斯托佛.诺兰第二部背景设定不在当代(或未来)的电影,这部战争片描绘了在敦刻尔克营救数十万大军的史诗般宏大场面。该片由汤姆.哈迪、马克.里朗斯、肯尼斯.布莱纳,斯里安.墨菲以及哈里.斯泰尔丝出演。想一想《拯救大兵瑞恩》,不过比这更刺激。
2016年上榜的全球十亿美元级富豪共计1810名,位居次席的是Zara创始人阿曼西奥·奥特加,商界巨擘沃伦·巴菲特紧随其后,埃卢则是位居本榜单的第四名。
The quickest growth in executive pay on average came from the hotel and catering sectors, at 47.58%.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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“也许,小组会多你一个少你一个问题不大,但是,你的不称职就意味着67万人的缺席,你的失语就意味着67万人沉默。”
champion
我们一定要让企业和群众更多感受到“放管服”改革成效,着力打通“最后一公里”,坚决除烦苛之弊、施公平之策、开便利之门。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

节目19 歌曲《一辈子朋友》,杨坤 张靓颖
如果观众还不知道这部影片是以20世纪80年代初为背景,那看一眼安娜的直刘海就知道了。她留着齐肩长发,刘海以外的部分在脸庞四周形成微微弯曲的弧度。这个造型很简单,但对这个女人来说显得很有力量,她丈夫艾贝尔(奥斯卡·伊萨克[Oscar Isaac]饰)经营取暖油生意,不过她的过去更为复杂。
该调查发现,211和985重点建设高校毕业生的薪酬水平大幅度领先普通高校毕业生。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 狗狗雨伞正流行。可爱又有趣的,也非常实用。
  • LED照明实体店的变革之路
  • I give all my love to you this New year.值此佳节,献上我对你所有的爱。
  • 广东省推广无人机环保执法
  • 白银楼市难见大涨大跌 限购政策有望全面退出
  • 飞速变化的效应
    报告还显示,2012年以来,企业养老保险累计结余虽不断扩大,但可支付月数由2012年的19.7个月下降至2015年的17.7个月。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 严厉监管收获成效 吴江防水建材企业环保意识越来越强, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

35城楼市连续5年供大于求 房企重任仍是去库存

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 支持:《敦刻尔克》讲述了一场重要的历史事件,深受观众和影评人喜爱。
    科派斯塔克说,人们对经济紧缩和欧元稳定的忧虑使得过去一年欧元区城市的生活成本指数降低了,而加拉加斯能跻身前20则是由于人为的高汇率管制。
  • One of the more notorious incidents was when Zhu Ling, a student at the prestigious Tsinghua University, was paralyzed when her roommate allegedly poisoned her with thallium in 1994.
    A median forecast from economists had predicted a 0.9 per cent rise.
    小说作者安东尼·赫洛维兹(Anthony Horowitz)透露,新书《Trigger Mortis》为现代读者作了改动,包含反对吸烟的信息,而且首次有一位“直言不讳”的同性恋朋友出场。
    adj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的
    《小镇疑云》,BBC America,3月4日播出。大卫·田纳特(David Tennant)携第二季归来,在这部引人共鸣的英国推理剧中继续饰演亚力克·哈迪(Alec Hardy)探员(去年他在美国翻拍版的《小镇疑云》[Gracepoint]中饰演埃米特·卡弗探员)。这部剧将于周一在英国首映,制作人们已经开始谈起第二季的秘密情节了,编剧克里斯·齐布纳尔(Chris Chibnall)在接受英国杂志采访时说的话可能会让剧迷不爱听,“第二季不是讲罪案的。”奥莉薇娅·科尔曼(Olivia Colman)继续饰演艾丽·米勒(Ellie Miller)探员,夏洛特·兰普林(Charlotte Rampling)和玛丽安娜·琼-巴普迪斯特(Marianne Jean-Baptiste)也加入了演员阵容。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 恒生指数收涨0.41% 地产普涨多只内房股涨逾2%
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 又一巨头入局智能家居 或撼动市场格局

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

8) I am a closed kind of person 0 1 2 3 4
但大部分海外岛屿则会出售永久产权。
我们不希望通过贬值来增加出口,这不利于企业转型升级。
坚持一个中国的政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。
China's online game revenue in 2008 was CNY20.8 billion, accounting for about 27% global share, ahead of South Korea at 21% and slightly behind the U.S. at 29%, according to an earlier report by Shanghai-based market research firm iResearch. The firm also predicted that China is likely to surpass the U.S. to become the world's largest by the end of 2009.
The year before, Taiwanese anti-China protesters chose the sunflower as the symbol for their cause.
英语中,男女用语的7个大不同

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • We learned that nothing brings people together like the sun hiding behind the moon.
  • 北京正式推“人才住房” 含公租房、共有产权房
  • 由于孙轶潇没带手机,他开始尝试大声呼救以引起外面人的注意,但是时间一分一秒地流过,并没有人回应他。
    [kru:]
  • 2015年楼市走向多空掐架:任志强看多潘石屹看空
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 单词lasting 联想记忆:
    他们两个自称拥有着世界上最大的两个粉丝基础。但是周日晚上,在伦敦温布利SSE竞技场上举行的2017年欧洲音乐大奖中,Shawn Mendes夺得桂冠, Taylor Swift在她参选的五个奖项中纷纷落选。
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    The first view is that the price is inherently cyclical. What has come down must go back up again and the deeper the trough the higher the next mountain.
  • 而中国工商银行排在榜单的第十位,是该榜单上排名最高的中国企业。
    But whether another hit product can emerge to fend off questions about Apple’s life after Jobs, Mr Cook learnt long ago to be patient and trust his instincts, just as he did when he ignored the doubters to join the then-struggling company in 1998.
  • n. 隧道,地道
    The world's second-largest economy is catching up to traditional innovation front-runners, who were led again this year by Switzerland, Sweden, Britain and the United States, said the annual report by the U.N.'s World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), INSEAD Business School and Cornell University.
    The Magic are the single-most mystifying team in this entire exercise. They make little sense on paper or on the court.
  • 1.Asana
    CANCER: THE EMPEROR OF ALL MALADIES (PBS, March 30) Barak Goodman (“Scottsboro: An American Tragedy,” “My Lai”) is the director and Ken Burns is an executive producer of this six-hour series based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book “The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer” by Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 卖场发展遇瓶颈 客户体验成就居家梦想 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

多家上市公司将申报进入雄安新区建设适用建材产品目录

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

银行做“二房东”预付数年租金 你愿尝试吗?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

911致癌3000余人:是否与建筑材料有关

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

“大拆大建”行不通 老城区该如何恢复性修建?

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • ……太紧张,差点昏过去。
  • [k?n'sist?ntli]
  • 有“王牌”才够味 木门企业将上演精彩2016大戏

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Analysts say headline import figures may start to improve in the coming months since commodity price falls were particularly pronounced at the end of 2014, which will mean smaller year-on-year falls in Chinese imports in value terms.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • compromise
    三月四日在好莱坞高地中心Mary J. Blige, Miguel, Gael García Bernal, Andra Day, Natalia LaFourcade, Keala Settle, Sufjan Stevens and Common将会演唱自己的原创歌曲来庆贺第90届奥斯卡。
    n. 企业,事业,谋划,进取心
  • Only asset management firms saw profits rise, up 16.7 per cent year-on-year to Rmb3.7bn.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

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  • 访大连傅禹集团有限公司的副总经理孔贞国
  • 如果上述情况都变成现实,休伯蒂估计苹果在中国智能手机市场上已跌至10%的份额将会提高三倍,达到近30%。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 健康睡眠产品需求大 床垫专业化是大方向
  • Household substance abuse
  • 壁纸市场洗牌期 催生三四级市场
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

通州副中心红利尽显,K2十里春风月均销售300余套

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京公租房,“人脸识别”的治理启示
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • LiFi成LED厂家转型“法宝” 多家龙头企业争相布局
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The Handmaid's Tale

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The release of Apple's iPhone 6s and 6s Plus models in September led to record sales in China, which accounts for more than a fourth of the company's operating income. Apple, whose products are often viewed as status symbols in China, is in competition not just with its South Korean archrival Samsung, but with the increasingly popular Chinese smartphone makers Huawei and Xiaomi.
Spanish business school IE has scored a hat-trick by reaching the top spot in the Financial Times ranking of online MBA programmes for the third year in a row. IE came in ahead of the UK’s Warwick Business School, ranked number two for the third year running, and Durham University Business School, which made it into the top three for the first time.
万事达公司表示,其数据反映出世界主要大城市的互联性,并追踪了商务和休闲飞机乘客的消费方式。
If any movie can bridge the deep racial, generational and class divides in American life — at least for a couple of hours — it would have to be this revival of the ancient “Rocky” franchise. Sylvester Stallone, shuffling into the wise old trainer role, gives perhaps the loosest, warmest performance of his career. Michael B. Jordan, as Adonis Johnson, Rocky’s protégé (and the illegitimate son of his onetime rival and long-lost friend, Apollo Creed), continues his emergence as one of the vital movie stars of our moment. As for Mr. Coogler, with his second feature as a director he proves himself to be a true contender. (Read the review)
These larger screen sizes will put additional strain on iOS 7 and developers who will need to figure out how to adapt their apps to even more configurations. These additional formats will provide some exciting opportunities for applications as well, and we can anticipate that iOS 8 will contain many features designed to accommodate multi-screen design.
8. “Mad Max: Fury Road”(George Miller)
但是,海外机构投资者表示,随着中国经济增长放慢,香港房地产市场已经过热,正在进入调整阶段。
政府确实管了一些不该管、也不应属于自己管的事情,它束缚了市场主体的手脚,降低了行政效率,甚至影响了政府的公信力。
现在让我们去希腊。在2010年至2015年期间担任希腊统计局(Elstat)局长的安德烈亚斯?耶奥尔耶欧(Andreas Georgiou),因揭露希腊2009年公共财政虚假数据并更正数据而面临指控。本周,以美国统计协会(American Statistical Association)为首的40个组织和651名个人签署声明,支持耶奥尔耶欧。
Dachis says: The news just keeps getting worse for Mitsubishi. Low sales triggered a decision to pull out of the European market and if the levels of negative discussion are any indicator, 2013 doesn’t look to be any better.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 根据迪拜政府的最新预测,在迪拜旅游的游客今年将消费313亿美元,远远超过伦敦游客消费的198亿美元。伦敦在游客消费榜单中排名第二。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 凯洛格/香港科大EMBA项目的优势在于学员的素质。
  • 拍抖音谎称通宵排队买房 房产中介被吊销证书
  • reservation
  • 两会前夕调查:56.1%受访者期待住房议题 仅次于教育和就业
  • Some of them still give high return to their shareholders. China Merchants Bank is generous; its dividend reached 30.16% of its net profits.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 租售同权 年轻人真的不必买房了吗?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Yes, it is that obvious when you're interviewing elsewhere and go MIA, with or without a flimsy excuse. Schedule phone interviews for personal hours, like a lunch break, and take vacation or PTO days for lengthy in-person interviews. "That way, you're not feeling pressured during the interview to get back to work – which can affect how you handle the interview – and you're not stealing time from your employers," Kay says。
  • core

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

LED企业大动作频频上演 有何用意?

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